Diabetes Mellitus

Diabetes mellitus ; Why to read this article ?

          Before reading this diabetes mellitus article, you should know why to read this article. this article is written to make you aware of deadly disease called diabetes mellitus and warn you to take care this.
          Diabetes mellitus is a serious syndrome ( group of disease ) that kills many people than other deadly disease like AIDS cancer. About 2.8 % (171 million) of worlds population is affected by diabetes mellitus in 2000 and expected to be about 4.4 % ( 366 million ) in 2030. diabetes mellitus is a common disease in US. Over 16 million Americans already caught diabetes mellitus. About 5.4 million people people who caught diabetes mellitus are still not aware of their existing disease. Diabetes mellitus is one of the main criteria of death in US. Also Diabetes mellitus is the primary reason for adult blindness and Major renal disease, gangrene and amputation. The patient with diabetes mellitus are four times more likely to have coronary heart disease and stroke.
         This diabetes mellitus article deals with understanding of diabetes mellitus. Understanding is the major step for the treatment and prevention of diabetes mellitus. This diabetes mellitus article also deals with precaution to control and exaduate the diabetes mellitus completely. 

Diabetes Mellitus

          Diabetes mellitus not a disease, It is a syndrome which means group of disease. understanding of diabetes mellitus is necessary before treating and start taking medicines.
         Diabetes mellitus simply referred to as diabetes is a metabolic syndrome charecterised by high blood sugar (glucose) level. Metabolism referred to the way our body use digested food for the production of energy. The food we eat is digested to carbohydrate, protein, fat etc. The food that affect blood sugar (glucose) level is carbohydrates. eg: bread, rice, potato, corn, milk products etc. Generally those carbohydrates are then digested (broken down) into glucose (blood sugar). Glucose then enter the blood circulation. Blood doesn't need the glucose. Our body (cells) needs the glucose for the production of energy. Insulin is necessary for the transport of glucose from the blood into cells. Insulin is a hormone produced by beta cells of islets of Langerhans ( group of endocrine cells ) of pancreas. After eating the food, pancreas automatically release an adequate amount of insulin to move the glucose present in our blood to the cell. So a healthy pancreas adjust the amount of insulin based on the level of glucose in the blood, hence lower the blood glucose level and thereby cells get the glucose they wanted for the production of energy
         Insulin is the only hormone which helps in the transport of glucose into the cell. That is insulin helps in the uptake of glucose by the cell for the production of energy they needed. Think of what happens when pancreas stops the production of insulin, what happens when pancreas does not produce enough insulin that is needed or what happens when the insulin produced does not respond (cells become resistant to insulin). No doubt, the result is too much glucose in the blood (hyperglycemia). Even though the blood has plenty of glucose the cells are not getting it for their essential energy and growth requirement. This condition is called as Diabetes Mellitus. Now do you understand how serious the disease is ?
         The high glucose level produce classic symptoms of polyuria (frequent urination), polydipsia ( increased thirst ) and polyphagia (increased hunger). We deal with it later
        In the ancient world, diabetes mellitus is first identified as a disease associated with sweet urine and excessive muscle loss. Diabetes mellitus is a chronic medical condition, meaning that although it can be controlled, it lasts a lifetime.

Types of Diabetes Mellitus

Symptoms of Diabetes Mellitus

          Symptoms of diabetes mellitus is caused by high blood glucose level in blood (hyperglycemia). The signs and symptoms of diabetes mellitus is more likely the same for both type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus because the cause of symptoms of diabetes mellitus is high blood glucose level either due to no production of insulin or insulin resistance. The occurance of diabetes mellitus can be identified through certain signs and symptoms. These symptoms are quickly relieved once the diabetes mellitus treated and also can reduce the risk of developing various health problems. Hence you should start treatment for diabetes mellitus once the symptoms has been seen and diagnosed diabetes mellitus to avoid the its complications.
         Type 1 diabetes mellitus is caused by the destruction of beta cells (cells which produce insulin) of islet of Langerhans (group of endocrine cells) of pancreas which may due to auto immune disorder (immune system attacking the host cell) or due to any viral infection of the cell. Whatever the cause is, no insulin or no enough insulin. So glucose from the blood could not enter the cell for their energy production. This cause primary symptoms of nausea and vomiting. In the later stage it leads to diabetic ketoacidosis. Since the cells are not getting any glucose for their energy, they start breaking down fat and muscle tissue for their energy causing fast weight loss. Due to electrolyte imbalance, dehydration is observed. If left untreated, in advanced stage coma and death is witnessed.
      Type 2 diabetes mellitus is caused by insulin resistance (body cells do not respond to insulin). The result is hyperglycemia. Major symptoms are..

Increased fatigue: In diabetes mellitus, glucose could not enter the cell. hence blood has too much glucose and body cells lack glucose. glucose is the main source of energy to cell. this means that cells lack energy or they are in a starving stage. since we have no produced energy to do work, we feel tired (fatigue) while doing work

Polyuria: Do you know what is the function of kidney ? it is not only excretion but also reabsorption. Kidney excrete substance like urea and reabsorb substance like glucose that reaches the kidney through blood. So what happens when glucose level in blood is too high above the maximum level that kidney can reabsorb (renal threshold). Of course the glucose is lost through urine. To excrete glucose, more water is used. So along with glucose more water is lost trough urine and frequent urination is seen.

Polydipsia(increased thirst): As explained above when large amount of water is lost through urine, our body loss large amount of fluid and high amount of glucose in blood increases the osmolarity. In order to maintain osmolarity, brain stimulates and we feel thirst

Polyphagia(increased hunger): In diabetes mellitus, cells are not getting any glucose. So they lack energy and brain get stimulated and we feel hunger

Blurry vision: When blood glucose level is increased too high, osmolarity of blood is also increased which results in the suction of water from the body including the lens to dilute the blood (maintain normal osmolarity). It affects the shape of lens and leads to blurry vision. If left untreated, it may lead to double vision, cloudy vision, retinal detatchment and even cause blindness.

Slow healing of wounds: Wound of a person with diabetes mellitus heals slowly. here are the reasons
poor circulation : If you have diabetes mellitus for a long time, your arteries will be more probably deposited with fat which slows down blood flow causing poor circulation. For healing of a wound, oxygen and healing nutrients are essential whose supply is limited by poor circulation.
Immune system issues: To heal a wound, dead and damaged tissue has to clear away and have to build new skin cells. This is done by immune system. The immune system does not work effectively in a person with diabetes mellitus.

Infections: When there is diabetes mellitus, our body gives few signs by frequent skin infection like fungal, bacterial, and urinary tract infection. Women with diabetes mellitus find it especially difficult to recover from bladder or vaginal infection. This infections are caused due to depression of the immune system

Irritability: Irritability is a common sigh of diabetes mellitus because of the inefficient glucose supply to brain and other organ which makes us feel tired and uneasy

Dry skin: Diabetes mellitus cause dry and itchy skin which may result from peripheral diabetic neuropathy which affects circulation and proper functioning of sweat glands.

Tingling hands and feet: Diabetes mellitus damages blood vessels and nerves which leads to loss of sensation in the hands and feet


           If above symptoms are identified, then you should consult a doctor and start treatment as early as possible. the doctor will advice you to follow an active life style that includes exercise on a daily basis as well as healthy eating plan and if needed prescribes you diabetes mellitus medicines.

Causes of Diabetes Mellitus

     The real cause of diabetes mellitus is uncertain, although certain contributing factors are as follows.

Cause of type 1 Diabetes Mellitus

           Type 1 diabetes mellitus is caused by the destruction of cells in pancreas that produce insulin results in the severe lack of insulin. It is an autoimmune disease. researchers believe that some of the etiology and risk factors which trigger type 1 diabetes mellitus are
  • Infection with a specific virus or bacteria
  • Exposure to chemical toxins in food
  • Exposure as a young infant to cow's milk where an unidentified component stimulates autoimmune reaction in the body
          In most of the cases diabetes mellitus occurs because there is abnormal secretion of some hormones in the blood which acts antagonistic to insulin. eg: adrenocortical hormone, adrenaline hormone, thyroid hormone etc

Cause of type 2 Diabetes mellitus

          Type 2 diabetes mellitus develops usually in middle age. 90 - 95 % people people suffering from diabetes mellitus are type 2 diabetes mellitus and about 80 % people with diabetes mellitus are overweight. Type 2 diabetes mellitus is believed to develop when receptors of the cells which helps in the transport of glucose from blood to cell fails to respond to insulin (insulin resistance). So more insulin is produced and this overproduction exhaust the insulin producing beta cells in pancreas.
        Type 2 diabetes mellitus is most common in people who are
Following are the causes of diabetes mellitus...


It is believed that some genes (responsible for diabetes mellitus) may transfer from one generation to another and may inherit diabetes mellitus. It depends upon the closeness of blood relationship. That is if you have a parent, brother or sister with diabetes mellitus, there is a chance for developing diabetes mellitus to you too.


Person with increased age are more prone to develop diabetes mellitus than young. Diabetes mellitus can develop at any age, but 80 % of diabetes mellitus occur after 50 yrs. Incidence of diabetes mellitus increase with age factor.

Poor diet:

Improper nutrition, higher use of refined products and low intake of proteins and fibers are expected reason for developing diabetes mellitus.

Obesity and Fat deposition: 

The person with obesity are prone to develop diabetes mellitus. About 80 % of people with diabetes mellitus are overweight. Being overweight means increased insulin resistance. A person with body fat more than 30 % of BMI, waist grith 35 inches in women or 40 inches in male are prone to diabetes mellitus.

Sedentary life style:

People with a sedentary life style are at a risk of developing diabetes mellitus when compared to those people who exercise thrice a week.

 Either a physical injury or an emotional disturbance may be an initial cause of diabetes mellitus. This is explained as any disturbance in corticosteroid hormone or ACTH therapy may lead to clinical signs of diabetes mellitus.

Drug induced:

Drugs such as clozapine (clozaril), olanzapine (zyprexa), risperidone (risperdal), induce diabetes mellitus. Drugs such as steroids, dilantin and other may elevate blood sugar level through some mechanism and induce diabetes mellitus. Drugs such as alloxan, thiazide diuretics, streptozocin are toxin to beta cells of pancreas and induce diabetes mellitus.

Associated with other disease: 

Certain syndromes like prader-willi, down, progeria and turners syndrome may result in hyperglycemia and if this state prolonged may result in diabetes mellitus.


Certain infections to pancreas can induce diabetes mellitus.


Diabetes mellitus is commonly seen in elderly males than in females, but diabetes mellitus is more stronger in females than in males especially those females with poly cystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) or multiple pregnancy.


Many studies proved that people with high systolic pressure are prone to diabetes mellitus.

Serum lipids and lipoproteins:

Person with high triglyceride and cholesterol level in blood are more likely to develop diabetes mellitus. In some cases it has been studied that risk is involved even with low HDL level in circulating blood.

          This doesn't means that you will develop diabetes mellitus if you have these factors. These are the factors that cause diabetes mellitus. The more risk factors you have, the more likely you develop diabetes mellitus

Complications of Diabetes Mellitus

         When we crossed the reversible stage of diabetes mellitus (prediabetes) and enters the diabetes stage, there develops certain changes in the body. These changes occur due to untreated diabetes mellitus and improper hormone balance. When these changes kept untreated, it become permanent and leads to certain diabetes mellitus complications. Diabetes mellitus complications begins because of blood vessel and nerve damage caused due to high blood sugar, prolonged diabetes mellitus high cholesterol level and high blood pressure. Nerve damage of the respective organ is the root cause of complications of diabetes mellitus.
The complications are

    • Diabetic retinopathy is caused due to blood vessel damage in the retina causing poor circulation and lack of oxygen to nourish the retina and also in extreme cases leakage of blood in to retina can cause loss of vision. pain in eye is the man symptom shown by diabetic retinopathy in the initial stage.
    • Uncontrolled diabetes mellitus can damage the nerves in your body causing diabetic neuropathy. Diabetic neuropathy cause tingling, numbness, tightness, burning,shooting or stabbing pain in feet, hand or other body parts especially at night
    • Diabetic nephropathy (diabetic kidney disease) is caused by damage of small vessels to kidney due to untreated diabetes mellitus. Diabetic nephropathy shows symptoms edema (swelling) in feet and legs. It then passes over the total body and as the disease progress, blood pressure is also increased.
    • Heart disease, stroke, and heart attack are caused by blockage of blood vessels to heart. The blockage results in lack of oxygen to heart tissue. Symptoms like chest pain (angina) , shortness of breath, dizziness or light headache, stomach or shoulder pain, fast heart beat are seen in diabetes heart disease. You might not show any symptoms until having a stroke or heart attack.
    • Diabetic gastroparesis is a disorder in which stomach takes too much time to empty its contents. It is caused due to  damage of nerves supplying the stomach.
    • Erectile dysfunction is also seen in association with diabetes mellitus caused due to damage of nerves to penis.
    • Urinary tract infection is caused in diabetes mellitus due to nerve damage, but the main cause is due to gastroparesis where there is a delay in emptying the stomach content which in turn increases bacterial growth and cause infection. Due to high blood glucose, immune system does not work well and it is not able to fight the infection.

Diabetic retinopathy                                 Diabetic neuropathy


care of Diabetes mellitus

          Diabetes mellitus is a tough disease to handle. the reason is

  • Cause of diabetes mellitus is not well known
  • Diabetes mellitus is difficult to prevent
  • Once you got diabetes mellitus, it is not possible to cure it completely and you need to take care of your health for the entire life
Diabetes mellitus care is a lifelong responsibility.

Diabetes mellitus care tips

If you are a person with diabetes mellitus, you need some precaution in your day to day life
  • Monitor your blood glucose level regularly. Depending on the severity of your diabetes mellitus, your doctor will tell you the time interval
  • Should take regular doses of medicines or insulin as prescribed.
  • Regular exercise has been proven in controlling blood glucose level. But certain exercise are known to cause to some diabetes mellitus complications like hypoglycemia, cardiovascular disease
  • In case you feel hypoglycemia (blood glucose level drops) after exercise, you should consume some drinks which supply sugar like a fruit juice.
  • Weight reduction is the most important step in managing diabetes mellitus. Obesity is directly related to insulin resistance. So take all steps to reduce your weight.
  • Don't smoke: smoking and using other type of tobacco increase your risk to various diabetes mellitus complications including heart attack, stroke, nerve damage and kidney disease. In fact smokers with diabetes mellitus are three times likely to die due to cardiovascular disease than non smokers who have diabetes mellitus
  • Keep your cholesterol and blood pressure under control. Like diabetes mellitus high blood pressure can damage your blood vessels. High cholesterol is a concern too. When you have diabetes mellitus along with blood pressure, the damage will be more severe, rapid and leads to heart attack, stroke or other life threatening conditions. Having a regular exercise and a healthy eating habit can go a long way towards controlling high cholesterol level and blood pressure. sometimes medicines are needed.
  • If you are suffering from diseases like flu, cold or any other infection, some extra care is needed to be taken to avoid further complications of diabetes mellitus
  • The diseases or infection may force some changes in your diet. Consult a doctor for assistance
  • Keep your vaccine up to date: Diabetes mellitus can suppress the immune system of our body which makes routine vaccine more important.
  • Drink lots of water and other other clear liquids.
  • Even if you are not feeling hungry, don't cut your food.
  • Take care of your teeth: Diabetes mellitus make you prone to gum infection. Brush your teeth atleast twice a day and a dental check up atleast twice a year. Consult your dentist right away if your gum looks red or swollen or bleeds.
  • Pay attention to your feet: Prolonged diabetes mellitus can cause damage the nerves in your feet and reduce blood flow to your feet. If left untreated can cause cuts and blusters that can lead to serious infections  (diabetic foot)
  • Consider a aspirin daily: Aspirin reduce the bloods ability to clot. Taking a daily aspirin can reduce the complications of diabetes mellitus related to heart. Ask your doctor about it including the strength of aspirin if needed.
  • Consult your doctor if you are feeling abnormal in many manner. If you are feeling excessive sleepy, trouble with urination, giddiness etc
          Even though diabetes mellitus is a chronic disease, it doesn't means that you have to avoid  every acts you enjoyed once you are caught with diabetes mellitus. You can have all the fun provided you should take some precautions. Diabetes care is within your control. If you are willing to do your part, diabetes mellitus wont stand in your way of active, healthy life.

 Can Diabetes mellitus be cured ?

          You might heard in many books and sites that " Diabetes mellitus cannot be cured". If i repeat the same here, it will be lie. Yes, diabetes mellitus can be cured. Before dealing with it, listen why to cure diabetes mellitus.
          Diabetes mellitus is very serious disease. If you ignore it, it leads to many complications and may end in death too. About 70 - 75 % death in patients with diabetes mellitus is due to  cardiovascular diseases which is the main complication of diabetes mellitus and acute myocardial infarction is responsible for 30 % of above cases. Diabetes mellitus doubles the heart attack chance in males and even triple in women. Prolonged diabetes mellitus and diabetes mellitus in elderly person are more like to develop silent myocardial infarction (painless heart attack) with increased chance of death. It has been estimated by diabetic specialist that chronic diabetes mellitus shortens a persons lifespan by an average of 13.5 years.
          Now you know why to cure diabetes mellitus. lets talk about how to cure it. In case of type 1 diabetes mellitus, doctors prescribe you insulin to decrease your blood glucose level. Let me tell you one thing. These medications cant cure your diabetes mellitus. It can only decrease your blood glucose level and thereby preventing complications of diabetes mellitus. To cure your type 1 diabetes mellitus, your body should produce insulin. Pancreas transplantation is a permanent treatment for type 1 diabetes mellitus and it is successful in many cases. About 400 - 500 pancreas transplants are performed in US per year. 
       In case of type 2 diabetes mellitus, medications cant cure your diabetes mellitus. It is possible to cure type 2 diabetes mellitus too. It will be discussed later in the treatment of diabetes mellitus.

Prevention of Diabetes Mellitus

          Prevention is proven to be the most effective and powerful method to fight against diabetes mellitus. More than 50 % of diabetes is caused by inappropriate lifestyle. Changing your lifestyle could be a big step towards the prevention of diabetes mellitus.
          In type 2 diabetes mellitus, prevention is a big deal. It is important to prevent type 2 diabetes mellitus if you are at increased risk of diabetes mellitus. eg: if you are overweight and a family history of diabetes mellitus.
          Prevention of diabetes mellitus is very simple by eating more healthfully, becoming more physically active, losing a few extra pounds, making a few simple steps in your lifestyle may prevent complications of diabetes mellitus such as heart disease, nerve, eye disease and kidney damage.

Tips to prevent Diabetes Mellitus

Get more physical activity: there are many benefits if you do daily exercise like loss weight, lower your blood sugar and boost your sensitivity to insulin. Losing 10 % of initial body weight and regular exercise can immensely reduce the risk of diabetes mellitus.

Get plenty of fibers: fibers helps to 
  • Improve your blood sugar control and reduce your risk to diabetes mellitus
  • Lower your risk of cardiovascular disease.
  • Lose weight by helping you feel full
foods high in fibers includes vegetables, fruits, seeds, whole grans etc. 

Go to whole grains: whole grains reduce you risk of diabetes mellitus and help to maintain blood sugar level. Try to make atleast half your grains to whole grains.

Lose extra weight: If you are obese, it means you are in high risk of diabetes mellitus. that is overweight is directly related to obesity. Hence diabetes prevention hinge on weight loss. Studies revealed that overweight adult reduce their diabetes risk by 16 % for every kilo gram (2.2 pounds) of weight loss.

 Management of Diabetes mellitus

          The theme of management of diabetes mellitus is to control blood sugar level. Keeping your blood sugar level with a target range can help not only to prevent complications of diabetes mellitus but also to live a long and healthy life. If you are obese, you need to reduce your body weight so that insulin works better. Do you know what makes your blood sugar level rise and fall. They are


     Healthy eating is the main step towards the management of diabetes mellitus. The blood sugar level is affected by not only what you eat but also when you eat and how much you eat. 
Tips to Manage Diabetes Mellitus through Food

  •  Eat several meals a day or eat healthy snacks at regular times every day
  • Makes every meal well balanced. That is every meal must have the right mix of starches, fruits, vegetables, proteins and fats
  • Coordinate your meals and medications: Too much food in comparison with your diabetes mellitus medicines especially insulin may cause your blood sugar level climb too high (hyperglycemia) and too little food in comparison with insulin may result in dangerously low blood sugar ( hypoglycemia). Ask your diabetes health care specialist about the best coordinated meal and medication schedule.


     Physical activity is the second most important step towards the management of diabetes mellitus. When you exercise your muscle use glucose (blood sugar) for energy. Regular physical activity not only reduce the blood glucose level but also reduces the insulin resistance. Physical activities increases the body's response to insulin. More strenuous you work, longer the effects last. Even light activities such as gardening, house works can also manage your diabetes mellitus by lowering blood glucose level.


     When diet, exercise alone are not sufficient for managing diabetes mellitus, insulin and other medications are used. These medications helps to lower the blood glucose level by different mechanism and helps to manage diabetes mellitus. The effectiveness of these medicines depends on the timing and dose

 Medicines of Diabetes Mellitus

          When diet, exercise and ideal body weight are not enough to manage diabetes mellitus, we may need to start medicines. The kind of medicines we take depends upon the type of diabetes mellitus, your schedule and other health conditions. If you have type 1 diabetes mellitus you will need to take insulin. Usually people with type 1 diabetes mellitus do not use oral medications. In people with type 2 diabetes mellitus their body cant keep up with insulin. So they may need to take pills. Some people take both insulin and pills along with meal planning and exercise. Diabetes pills helps patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and gestational diabetes mellitus to keep their blood glucose level on target.

Medicines for type 1 Diabetes Mellitus

          Type 1 diabetes mellitus once called as juvenile diabetes mellitus and insulin dependent diabetes mellitus usually found in children, teenagers and young adults. If you have type 1 diabetes mellitus you may need to take insulin because your body can no longer produce insulin. you also might need to take other type of diabetes  that work with insulin. unfortunately insulin cannot be taken as pills because enzymes in your stomach alter it. Hence insulin is taken with insulin syringe or insulin pump.

Medicines for type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

          Type 2 diabetes mellitus once called as adult onset diabetes mellitus and non insulin dependent diabetes mellitus is most common type of diabetes mellitus. It causes when body's cells become resistant to insulin. If body cant keep up with the need of insulin, you may need diabetes medicines. ADA recommends that most people starts with metformin, a kind of diabetes pill. But before starting any diabetes medication you should consult your doctor and ask his guidance. 

Medicines for Gestational Diabetes Mellitus

          Gestational diabetes mellitus is the diabetes mellitus that occur for the first time during pregnancy. The hormone of pregnancy or a shortage of insulin can cause gestational diabetes mellitus. Most women with gestational diabetes mellitus control it with diet planning and exercise. But some women needs insulin for their management of gestational diabetes mellitus.

Drugs used to treat type 2 diabetes mellitus are

  • sulfonylureas
  • biguanides
  • alpha glucosidase inhibitors
  • thiazolidinediones
  • meglitinides

 Diabetes Mellitus treatment

          Can diabetes mellitus be cured ? The answer to your question is yes. The main goal of diabetes mellitus treatment is to control your blood glucose level with in a target permanently. Lets discuss it in detail

Treatment of type 1 Diabetes mellitus

             In our body there are many hormone which can increase the blood glucose level like thyroid hormone, glucagone, corticosteroid etc. but the only hormone which reduces the blood glucose level is insulin. Type 1 diabetes mellitus is caused due to autoimmune disorder which destroys the insulin producing cells in pancreas. Hence insulin is not present in the body. Inorder to treat type 1 diabetes mellitus you should supply insulin. The insulin we inject can reduce the blood glucose level, but it is temporary only. For treating type 2 diabetes mellitus permanently we have to supply the insulin producing cells. The islet cell transplantation and pancreas transplantation are permanent treatment for type 1 diabetes mellitus. About 400 to 500 pancreas transplantation are taking place in US every year. But the problem with this method is, there is a chance for rejecting the pancreas we transplanted. so we have to take some immunosuppessive drugs to avoid the attacking of our immune system on the transplanted pancreas. Now researches have proved that liver cells can be altered and can be used to produce insulin. The experiment was successful in mice and researches are going on. 

Treatment of type 2 Diabetes mellitus

        In type 2 diabetes mellitus, it is not the problem with insulin but it is the problem with the body's cells. Type 2 diabetes mellitus is caused by insulin resistance. That is our body does not respond to insulin. For treating type 2 diabetes mellitus, we have to treat our body cells to increase their response towards insulin. Many of the people are using medicines for treating type 2 diabetes mellitus. It is not the right way for treating type 2 diabetes mellitus permanently. Of course medicines are essential only in some cases. Consider this. If you are using drug to treat diabetes mellitus means you are using it to control your blood glucose level. After some day your doctor may increase the dose of your medicine. That means your cells are not responding well to the initial dose. that is you cells become resistant to that drug with that dose. is it good ? think of it. This method of treatment is only temporary. 
          The permanent method of treating type 2 diabetes mellitus are changing your lifestyle, diet control and regular exercise. It depends on severity of diabetes mellitus. Diet and exercise are also medicines. If you exercise daily your cells will be more active and  responds good to insulin. Diet also helps to maintain blood glucose level. It will take an average of 6 months to treat diabetes mellitus with this method and depends on severity of diabetes mellitus, your diet and exercise plan. If your diabetes mellitus is so severe, you may need to take some medicines in order to control your blood glucose level. Try to avoid medicines and take a good control of your diabetes mellitus with diet and exercise.

 Diet for Diabetes mellitus

          Diabetes mellitus diet has a significant role in managing diabetes mellitus. Diabetes mellitus diet may be used alone or in combination with insulin or along with other diabetic pills. The main objective of diabetes mellitus diet is to maintain ideal body weight by providing adequate nutrition and maintaining normal blood glucose
         Diet plan for a person with diabetes mellitus is based on height, weight, sex, age, physical activity and nature of diabetes mellitus. While planning diabetes mellitus diet the dietitian has to consider complications such as high cholesterol level, high blood pressure and also should focus on certain important factors such as

  • Fibers should be atleast 1.4 oz/day
  • Instead of 3 heavy meal go for 4-5 small meals with regular interval
  • Replace bakery products and fast foods by simple whole cooked cereals
  • Don't eat carbohydrate 2 hours before bed time
  • Consume fresh fruit and vegetables atleast 5 times/day
  • You need to select foods that are higher in nutrition and low in calorie

Diabetes Mellitus Nutrition

          Diabetes mellitus patients must be always cautious about the source of their calorie intake. Recent researches carried out by health experts conclude that herbal supplements such as cactus, bitter melon, goat rue, nopal, bilberry, gumar, onion and garlic are effective in lowering the blood glucose level thereby helping diabetes mellitus patients to undergo less treatment distress. It had been proved that a balanced diabetes mellitus diet contains some important nutrients and useful supplements to help control the dancing blood sugar. 
         Look at the diabetic nutritional supplements we receive from our food and their action in controlling diabetes mellitus
  • Biotin         - helps in metabolism of carbohydrate, fat and protein
  • Chromium   - helps in metabolism of glucose
  • Vit C           - prevent sugar from getting attached to protein
  •  Vit E          - improve insulin sensitivity
  • Vit B6          - helps to prevent diabetic neuropathy
  • Magnesium   - helps to lower blood pressure and reduce the risk of heart attack by relaxing the muscle tissue
  • Vit D            - helps in reducing insulin resistance
  • Zinc             - helps in improving action of insulin
          Diabetes mellitus patients have greater need of nutrient supplement for fulfilling the metabolic and anti oxidant requirement of body. Design your diet as per above necessities and living your diabetic lifestyle will be much easier road to travel upon.

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